Maize Cultivation guide. Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the world's most important food crops, except wheat and rice. As the main source of carbohydrate in Central and South America, corn is also an alternative source of food in the United States. Residents of some areas in Indonesia (eg in Madura and Nusa Tenggara) also use corn as food pokok.trans Tour Cultivation Jagungtrans Free Maize Cultivation
Aside from being a source of carbohydrate, corn is also grown as fodder (forage and cob), extracted oil (of grain), made of flour (from grains, known as corn flour or cornstarch), and industrial raw materials (flour, grain and cob meal ). Corn cobs are rich in pentose, which is used as raw material for the manufacture of furfural. Genetically engineered corn has also now grown as a producer of pharmaceutical ingredients.
TERMS OF CORN PLANT GROWTH
Rainfall is ideal about 85-200 mm / month and should be evenly distributed. In the phase of flowering and grain filling needs to get enough water. Should be planted early in the season or early rainy season. Need sunlight, shade plants, its growth will be stunted and produce results that are not optimal seed.
The optimum temperature between 230 C - 300 C. Corn requires no special soil requirements, but the loose soil, humus rich soil will produce optimal. soil pH between 5.6 to 7.5. Good aeration and water availability, land slope is less than 8%. Areas with slopes of more than 8%, should be done before the formation of the terrace. Altitudes between 1000-1800 m above sea level with optimum height between 50-600 m asl.
CORN CROP CULTIVATION GUIDE
B. Soil Treatment
Land cleared of previous crop residues, crop residues are pretty much burned, the ashes are returned to the ground, then dug and processed by the plow. Land to be planted 15-20 cm deep hoeing, then flattened. Every 3 m made drainage channel along the row of plants. Channel width 25-30 cm, depth 20 cm.
This channel is mainly on poor soil drainage. In areas with a pH less than 5, limed soil (300 kg / ha) in a way to spread lime evenly / on row crops, + 1 month before planting. Before planting should disebari GLIO land that has been mixed with mature manure to prevent wilt on corn.
A. Terms of Seed Corn
Seeds should be of high quality both genetic, physical and physiological (seed hibryda). To grow the seed more than 90%. Requirements + 20-30 kg seeds / ha. Before the seeds are planted, should be soaked in the NASA POC (dose 2-4 cc / lt of water overnight).
Dose of manure per hectare 2 ton, 300 kg urea, SP36 150 kg, 75 kg KCl. Urea is given 2 times, each 1/2 parts at the plant was 18 days and 35 days. While manure, SP36 and KCl are given entirely at planting time.
D. Planting Corn
· Planting time should the rainy season.
1. Pattern Determination Corn Crop
Some cropping patterns commonly applied:
- Overlapping cultivation (Multiple Cropping), performed in succession throughout the year taking into account other factors for maximum profit. Example: corn, upland rice, soybean, peanut, etc..
- Intercropping (intercropping), planting more than one crop (same or different ages). Example: same age as intercropping corn and soybean intercropping different ages such as maize, cassava, upland rice.
- Plants Mixed (Mixed cropping), consists of planting some plants and grow without spacing or larikannya set, all mixed into one. Land efficient, but risky to the threat of pests and diseases. Example: a mixture of crops such as maize, soybean, cassava.
- Plants have an insert (Relay cropping), cropping pattern by inserting one or more types of crops other than staple crops (planting within the same or different times). Example: corn inserted peanuts, corn before harvest time pasted beans.
2. Planting Holes and How to Plant Corn Plant
Ditugal planting hole, the depth of 3-5 cm, and each hole is filled only 1 grain seed. Spacing corn harvest adjusted for age, the length of the wide age spacing. Mature corn harvest over 100 days since planting, cropping distance 40 × 100 cm (2 plants / hole). Corn harvest 80-100 days old, planted within 25 × 75 cm (1 plant / hole).
Weeding is done 2 weeks. Weeding the young corn plants can be hand or small hoe, forks etc.. Weeding should not disturb plant roots are at that age are still not strong enough gripping the ground is carried out after the plant was 15 days.
- Spacing and Stitching
Plants that grow well at least, cut with a sharp knife or scissors just above the soil surface. Revocation plants directly can not be done, because it will hurt the roots of other plants that will be left to grow. Stitching aims to replace the seeds that do not grow / die, performed 7-10 days after planting (dap). The number and types of seeds and replanting the same treatment in any planting.
- Irrigation and Watering
Once the seed is planted, watering taste, unless the soil has been moist, aim to keep the plants fresh. But ahead of flowering plants, which required larger water so that water flowed on the necessary trenches between bumbunan corn.
Pembumbunan done in conjunction with the weeding to strengthen the position of the stem so that the plant does not easily fall down and cover the roots emerging above ground because of the aeration. Performed at 6-week-old plants, along with the time of fertilization. Land on the right and left of the line diuruk plants with a hoe, then dumped in row crops. This way it will form an elongated ridges.